Guidelines 03/2019 on processing of personal data through video devices
Section 3.3 Consent, Article 6 (1) (a)
43. Consent has to be freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous as described in the guidelines on consent.
44. Regarding systematic monitoring, the data subject’s consent can only serve as a legal basis in accordance with Article 7 (see Recital 43) in exceptional cases. It is in the surveillance’s nature that this technology monitors an unknown number of people at once. The controller will hardly be able to prove that the data subject has given consent prior to processing of its personal data (Article 7 (1)). Assumed that the data subject withdraws its consent it will be difficult for the controller to prove that personal data is no longer processed (Article 7 (3)).
45 Example: Athletes may request monitoring during individual exercises in order to analyse their techniques and performance. On the other hand, where a sports club takes the initiative to monitor a whole team for the same purpose, consent will often not be valid, as the individual athletes may feel pressured into giving consent so that their refusal of consent does not adversely affect teammates.
46. If the controller wishes to rely on consent it is his duty to make sure that every data subject who enters the area which is under video surveillance has given her or his consent. This consent has to meet the conditions of Article 7. Entering a marked monitored area (e.g. people are invited to go through a specific hallway or gate to enter a monitored area), does not constitute a statement or a clear affirmative action needed for consent, unless it meets the criteria of Article 4 and 7 as described in the guidelines on consent.
47. Given the imbalance of power between employers and employees, in most cases employers should not rely on consent when processing personal data, as it is unlikely to be freely given. The guidelines on consent should be taken into consideration in this context.
48. Member State law or collective agreements, including ‘works agreements’, may provide for specific rules on the processing of employees’ personal data in the employment context (see Article 88).